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Knee

Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint

How does the Knee joint work?

Find out more in this web based movie.

Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint

Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into a joint. Arthroscopy is a term that comes from two Greek words, arthro-, meaning joint, and -skopein, meaning to examine.

The benefits of arthroscopy involve smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis and the patient is able to return home on the same day.

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Total Knee Replacement (TKR)

A total knee replacement (TKR) or total knee arthroplasty is a surgery that resurfaces arthritic knee joint with an artificial metal or plastic replacement parts called the ‘prostheses’.

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL Reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the centre of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately, it does not heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.

ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incision and low complication rates.

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon

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ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon

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Revision Knee Replacement

This means that complete or a part of your previous knee replacement needs to be revised. This operation varies from a very minor adjustment to a massive operation replacing significant amount of bone and hence is difficult to describe in full.

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Knee Pain

The knee is one of the largest joints in the body, formed by the lower end of the femur, upper end of the tibia and the patella or knee cap. Several ligaments and muscles attach to the bones of the knee joint to maintain normal motion of the joint.

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Anterior knee pain

Anterior knee pain is a characterized by a chronic pain over the front and centre of the knee joint. It is common in athletes, active adolescents (especially girls) and overweight individuals. Anterior knee pain refers to a variety of conditions which include runner’s knee or patellar tendinitis and chondromalacia of the patella.

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Runner’s knee

Introduction

Runner’s knee, also called patellofemoral pain syndrome refers to pain under and around your kneecap. Runner’s knee includes a number of medical conditions such as anterior knee pain syndrome, patellofemoral malalignment, and chondromalacia patella that cause pain around the front of the knee.

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Jumper’s Knee

Patellar tendinitis, also known as “jumper’s knee” is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in extension of the lower leg.

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Iliotibial Band (ITB) Syndrome

Iliotibial band syndrome is an overuse injury resulting from the inflammation of iliotibial band. Iliotibial band is a tough group of fibres that begins at the iliac crest of hip and runs along the outside of the thigh, to get attached to the outer side of the shin bone just below the knee joint.

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Lateral patellar compression syndrome

Introduction

Lateral patellar compression syndrome refers to pain under and around your kneecap. It is a common complaint among runners, jumpers, and other athletes such as skiers, cyclists, and soccer players.

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Osteochondritis dissecans

Osteochondritis dissecans is a joint condition in which a piece of cartilage, along with a thin layer of the bone separates from the end of the bone because of inadequate blood supply. The separated fragments are sometimes called “joint mice”.

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Knee sprain

Knee sprain is a common injury that occurs from overstretching of the ligaments that support the knee joint. A knee sprain occurs when the knee ligaments are twisted or turned beyond its normal range causing the ligaments to tear.

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tears

The anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, is one of the major ligaments of the knee that is located in the middle of the knee and runs from the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone). It prevents the tibia from sliding out in front of the femur.

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Medial collateral ligament tear

The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the ligament that is located on the inner part of the knee joint. It runs from the femur (thighbone) to the top of the tibia (shinbone) and helps in stabilizing the knee.

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Meniscal injuries

The knee is one of the most complex and largest joint in the body, and is more susceptible to injury. Meniscal tears are one among the common injuries to the knee joint. It can occur at any age, but are more common in athletes playing contact sports.
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Meniscal Tears

Meniscal tears are one of the most frequently reported injuries to the knee joint. The meniscus is a C-shaped fibro cartilaginous structure in the knee incompletely covering the surface of the tibia where it articulates with the femur. It consists of the medial meniscus, on the inner part of the knee, and the lateral meniscus on the outer aspect of the knee.

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High Tibial Osteotomy (Opening Wedge)

High tibial osteotomy is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pressure on the damaged site of an arthritic knee joint. It is usually performed in arthritic conditions affecting only one side of your knee and the aim is to take pressure off the damaged area and shift it to the other side of your knee with healthy cartilage. During the surgery, your surgeon will remove or add a wedge of bone either below or above the knee joint depending on the site of arthritic damage.

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Click on the topics below to find out more from the orthopaedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

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